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NGAKO

THIS IS A LANGUAGE THAT I INITIALLY MADE AS A PROGRAMMING LANGUAGE, BUT IT CAN ALSO BE USED AS A SPOKEN LANGUAGE. IT IS WRITTEN FROM TOP TO BOTTOM. IF NEEDED, LINES CAN BE BROKEN RIGHTWARDS (BETWEEN WORDS).

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▶︎ ALPHABET

THERE ARE FOUR VOWELS AND NINE CONSONANTS. A TOTAL OF FOURTEEN LETTERS.

LETTERSROMANISATIONSPHONEMES
o
O?
a
A[ɐ]
e
E[ə]
i
I[i/j]
u
U[ɯ/w]
m
M[m]
b
B[b/p]
v
V[v/f]
n
N[n]
d
D[d/t]
z
Z[z/s]
j
J[ʒ/ʃ]
q
Q[ŋ]
g
G[g/k]

THE FIRST LETTER IS CALLED “THE MYSTERY LETTER”. IT CAN REPRESENT ANY PHONEME THAT THE SPEAKER WANTS. THIS COULD BE USED AS A WAY TO SHOW RESPECT TO THE PERSON THAT YOU’RE TALKING TO, BY USING THEIR PREFERRED PHONEME. IT ALSO LETS THE SPEAKER BE MORE EXPRESSIVE WHEN TALKING ABOUT EMOTIONS.

THE SEMIVOWELS ARE PRONOUNCED WHEN THE LETTER IS IN THE ONSET. THE OTHER ALTERNATIVE PHONEMES RELATE TO VOICING AND CAN BE PRONOUNCED ANY TIME, DEPENDING ON THE SPEAKER’S PREFERENCE.

THERE IS ALSO ONE SILENT PUNCTUATION SYMBOL THAT GOES AT THE END OF SENTENCES (JUST LIKE A FULL STOP).

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▶︎ DIPHTHONGS

THERE ARE FIVE POSSIBLE DIPHTHONGS.

LETTERSROMANISATIONSDIPHTHONGS
ai
AIɐi
au
AUɐɯ
eu
EUəɯ
ie
IE
iu
IU

▶︎ PHONOTACTICS

ALL WORDS COMPRISE OF ONLY ONE SYLLABLE AND MUST HAVE AN ONSET AND A NUCLEUS. THE CODA IS OPTIONAL.

LONG VOWELS MAY BE FORMED BY DOUBLING THE LETTER. THE NUCLEUS MAY ONLY CONTAIN SINGLE VOWELS, DOUBLE VOWELS, OR VOWELS THAT ARE ARRANGED ACCORDING TO THE LIST OF DIPHTHONGS.

VIEW ROMANISATIONS

ALL OF THE POSSIBLE ONSETS
ALL OF THE POSSIBLE CODAS

▶︎ NUMBERS

THIS USES A BALANCED TRINARY NUMBER SYSTEM. THERE ARE THREE SYMBOLS TO REPRESENT NUMBERS.

SYMBOLSFUNCTIONSNAMESROMANISATIONS
+
POSITIVE
ga
GA
0
NEUTRAL
be
BE
-
NEGATIVE
dev
DEV

THE FIRST CHARACTER OF THE STRING REPRESENTS 30, THE SECOND CHARACTER REPRESENTS 31, AND SO ON, SO THE FORMULA TO FIND THE VALUE THAT THE “N”TH NUMERAL REPRESENTS IS 3N−1. THE CHARACTER THAT’S SHOWN IS THE MULTIPLIER OF THAT NUMERAL’S PLACE VALUE.

WHEN SPOKEN, THE CHARACTERS ARE GROUPED INTO PAIRS, AND EVERY SECOND ONE IS MODIFIED ACCORDING TO THE FOLLOWING TABLE.

CHARACTERSNAMESROMANISATIONS
+
ja
JA
0
ve
VE
-
zev
ZEV
CONVERTER

USE THE CHARACTERS: “+”, “0”, AND “-” TO INPUT TRINARY.

CONVERT
CONVERT

▶︎ WORDS

THERE ARE DELIBERATELY FEW WORDS. OPPOSITE MEANINGS ARE EXPRESSED WITH “NIV” AND THEN THE WORD. SPECIFIC WORDS FROM ENGLISH MAY NEED TO BE TRANSLATED WITH MULTIPLE WORDS IN NGAKO.

THERE ARE CURRENTLY WORDS.

PROGRAMMERS CAN FIND THEM ALL UNDER THE VARIABLE: words

SEARCH

VIEW ROMANISATIONS

▶︎ GRAMMAR

THIS LANGUAGE HAS NO INHERENT DISTINCTIONS BETWEEN NOUNS, ADJECTIVES, VERBS, OR ADVERBS, TENSES OR PLURALS, GENDERS, AND ABSTRACT IDEAS OR PHYSICAL OBJECTS. IT IS AN ISOLATING LANGUAGE.

THERE ARE THREE COORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS.

CONJUNCTIONSROMANISATIONSTYPEENGLISH EQUIVALENTS
nii
NIICUMULATIVEAND
qau
QAUEXCLUSIVE ALTERNATIVEOR
qauq
QAUQINCLUSIVE ALTERNATIVEOR

THE FIRST WORD IN EVERY SENTENCE MUST BE AN ACTION. DESCRIPTIONS FOR ACTIONS OR OBJECTS ARE EXPRESSED WITH CLAUSES THAT COME AFTER WHATEVER THEY’RE DESCRIBING (THIS CAN INDICATE THE GENITIVE CASE). IF THE SAME THING HAS MULTIPLE DESCRIPTIONS (SUCH AS: “THE QUICK BROWN FOX”), THEN THEY NEED TO BE SEPARATED BY THE CUMULATIVE COORDINATING CONJUNCTION AND ALL ENCAPSULATED WITHIN A LINE (EXPLAINED LATER).

THERE ARE FOUR PERSONAL PRONOUNS.

PRONOUNSROMANISATIONSTYPEENGLISH EQUIVALENTS
nai
NAIFIRST-PERSONI
vin
VINSECOND-PERSONYOU
de
DETHIRD-PERSON (AND DEMONSTRATIVE)IT
din
DINREFLEXIVEOWN

PLURAL PRONOUNS CAN BE DERIVED FROM THESE. EXPRESSING PLURALS OF ANY WORD SHOULD BE USED SPARINGLY — ONLY WHEN ABSOLUTELY NECESSARY.

PRONOUNSROMANISATIONSENGLISH EQUIVALENTS
mee nai
MEE NAIWE
mee vin
MEE VINYOU
mee de
MEE DETHEY

BRACKETS AND SPEECH MARKS ARE SHOWN BY A LINE (LIKE AN UNDERLINE, BUT ON THE RIGHT) UNTIL THEY’RE CLOSED. THE LINES ARE NESTED INWARDS TO THE LEFT. WORDS ADD THEIR MEANING TO THE PREVIOUS WORD AS SOON AS THEY’RE READ, SO THESE LINES CAN BE USED TO TIE SUBSEQUENT WORDS TOGETHER SO THAT THEIR MEANING JOINS ONTO THE PREVIOUS WORDS LATER IN THE SENTENCE (JUST LIKE BRACKETS IN MATHS.). THEY ARE SHOWN WITH BRACKETS IN ROMANISATIONS.

CERTAIN PREPOSITIONS ARE USED TO INDICATE THE CASE OF THE WORDS THAT FOLLOW. THE SAME PREPOSITIONS CAN BE USED MULTIPLE TIMES PER SENTENCE. THERE ARE SEVEN CASES.

CASESPREPOSITIONSROMANISATIONS
NOMINATIVE
io
IO
ACCUSATIVE
uo
UO
DATIVE
dvo
DVO
BENEFACTIVE
dvo jau
(DVO JAU)
ABLATIVE
no
NO
CAUSAL
no niv jau
(NO (NIV JAU))
LOCATIVE (AND CONDITIONAL)
zo
ZO

COMPARITIVE SENTENCES USE “ZNAN” (“MORE”) OR “NIV ZNAN” (“LESS”). THE ABLATIVE CASE INTRODUCES THE OBJECT FOR COMPARISON. CONSIDER THE FOLLOWING EXAMPLE.

ROMANISED NGAKOLITERAL TRANSLATIONENGLISH TRANSLATION
NEQ IO NAI UO ZNAN ZVIEZ NO VIN. AM [NOM.] I [ACC.] MORE OLD [ABL.] YOU I AM OLDER THAN YOU.

SUBSENTENCES CAN BE USED AFTER ANY GIVEN WORD. THESE ARE INSTANCES OF ANOTHER ACTION TAKING PLACE WITHIN THE SAME SENTENCE, SUCH AS: “I COULDN’T HEAR HIM SING.” THESE NEED TO BE ENCAPSULATED WITHIN A LINE. CONSIDER THE FOLLOWING EXAMPLE.

ROMANISED NGAKOLITERAL TRANSLATIONENGLISH TRANSLATION
BAI VOGZ IO DE UO (QAA QIN IO VIN). NOT LIKE [NOM.] HE [ACC.] (TALK QUICKLY [NOM.] YOU) HE DOES NOT LIKE YOU TALKING QUICKLY.

RELATIVE CLAUSES MAY NEED TO BE THEIR OWN SEPARATE SENTENCES.

▶︎ ROMANISATION

LETTERSROMANISATIONS
o
O
a
A
e
E
i
I
u
U
m
M
b
B
v
V
n
N
d
D
z
Z
j
J
q
Q
g
G
+
+
0
0
-
-
.
.

USE BRACKETS TO INSERT LINES.

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